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【亚博APP安全有保障】中考英语焦点词汇详解(H)

 


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本文摘要:H1. habit:n.习惯;习性用法小结→关联词组:good/bad habit好/坏习惯;form the habit of养成……的习惯;living habit生活习惯;eating habit饮食习惯;out of habit出于习惯;break the habit改掉习惯词性转换:habitual adj.习惯的,习以为常的;habitually adv.惯常,习惯地(2019,山东卷,单项填空)5.My brother has a healthy living habit. He stays up late, and he is an early bird.A. usually B. hardlyC. often D. always2. hangv.悬挂;垂落;吊着;把……吊起词形变化:已往式hung,已往分词hung用法小结:关联词组:hang on坚持下去;握住不放;不挂断;hang out闲逛;hang up (the phone)挂断电话;hang onto依附;牢牢抓住用法:hang可作及物动词,接名词或代词作宾语;也可作不及物动词,其主动形式含有被动意义。

H1. habit:n.习惯;习性用法小结→关联词组:good/bad habit好/坏习惯;form the habit of养成……的习惯;living habit生活习惯;eating habit饮食习惯;out of habit出于习惯;break the habit改掉习惯词性转换:habitual adj.习惯的,习以为常的;habitually adv.惯常,习惯地(2019,山东卷,单项填空)5.My brother has a healthy living habit. He stays up late, and he is an early bird.A. usually B. hardlyC. often D. always2. hangv.悬挂;垂落;吊着;把……吊起词形变化:已往式hung,已往分词hung用法小结:关联词组:hang on坚持下去;握住不放;不挂断;hang out闲逛;hang up (the phone)挂断电话;hang onto依附;牢牢抓住用法:hang可作及物动词,接名词或代词作宾语;也可作不及物动词,其主动形式含有被动意义。例如:You may hang your coat on the hook.你可以把外套挂在钩子上。All the shirts hang together in the same wardrobe.所有的衬衫都挂在同一个衣橱里。(2019,浙江卷,词汇运用)44. We ____________ (很少地〕hang out at weekends recently.3. happenv.(偶然)发生;碰巧用法小结:1.表现“某地(某时)发生了什么事”,常用“sth.+ happen +所在/时间”句型,此时主语为事情。

例如:The story happened in 1998.这个故事发生在1998年。2.表现“某人出了某事(常指欠好的事)”,常用“sth.+ happen+to sb.”这一结构来表达。例如:A car accident happened to her this morning.今天上午她发生了交通事故。

What happened to you?=what’s wrong with you?你怎么啦?3.表现“某人碰巧做某事”,常用“sb.+ happen+ to do sth.”来表达。例如:I happened to meet a friend of mine in the street yesterday.昨天我碰巧在街上遇到了我的一个朋侪。4.表现“碰巧或恰巧发生某事”时,还可用“It happens/happened that...”这一结构来表达。例如:It happened that Brian and Peter were at home that day.碰巧那天布莱恩和彼得在家了。

亚博APP安全有保障

注:that从句中的主语是人时,该结构可与“sb.+ happen + to do sth.”结构交换。例如:It happened that Brian and Peter were at home that day.= Brian and Peter happened to be at home that day.词性转换:happening n.发生的事(常用复数):There have been strange happenings here lately. 这儿最近发生了一些怪事。(2019,浙江卷,完形填空)How did this happen? I ___17___ we were friends.17. A. found B. admittedC. realized D. thought4. hardadj.硬的;难题的;努力的;adv.努力地;艰难地;猛烈地用法小结:形容词词组:hard disk硬盘;hard drive硬盘驱动器;have a hard time过得艰难;hard copy硬拷贝;复印件副词词组:work hard努力事情(学习);try hard努力hard和hardly区别:1.hard既是形容词,又是自己的副词,表现“努力的(地)”、“猛烈的(地)”;2.hardly只作副词,其词义与hard相去甚远,指“险些不”,表现否认观点。

试比力:He works hard.他努力事情。He hardly works.他险些不事情。

词性转换:hardness n.硬度;harden v.硬化;变硬;hardship n.困苦,艰难险阻;同义词:difficult adj.难题的反义词:soft adj.软的;温柔的;easy adj.容易的,简朴的(2019,浙江卷,完形)Over three weekends of hard work, Sally turned her design into a real, working go-kart and painted it light blue.5. health:n.康健,卫生用法小结:关联词组:health care卫生保健;physical health身体康健;mental health心理康健;World Health Organization世界卫生组织词性转换:healthy adj.康健的,健全的;healthily adv.康健地;healthiness n.康健,健全同义词:fitness n.康健;适当(2019,山东卷,单项填空)21. Tennis can exercise all of our muscles (肌肉) . And it requires _________to spend time with others. This is good for our health, too.A. ours B. us C. we6. hear:v.听到;听说词形变化:已往式heard,已往分词heard关联词组:hear from sb.收到某人的信;hear about听说,得知;hear of听说过1.hear与listen的区别:hear强调“听见”,即听的效果;listen强调听的行动;2.hear sb. do sth.表现听到某人做某事的全历程;hear sb. doing sth.强调听到某人正在做某事。试比力:I heard him sing a song yesterday.昨天我听见他唱了一支歌。I could hear people singing happily next door.我可以听见隔邻有人在欢快地唱歌。(2019,江苏卷,单项填空)9.Could you speak in a loud voice so that I canhear you _______________?A. quickly B. happilyC. slowly D. clearly7. heat:n.热,高温;v.加热;使激动用法小结:词组:heat wave热浪;heat stroke中暑;heat up加热词性转换:heated adj.热的;激动地,猛烈的:heated discussion猛烈的讨论;heater n.加热器(2019,山东卷,动词应用)The accident also caused heated discussions on the Internet.8. heavy:adj.(沉)重的;大量的,严重的用法小结:除了可指重量之外,heavy常用来表现数量、水平或严重性之大,常见搭配有:heavy traffic拥挤的交通;heavy rain/snow大雨/雪;heavy drinking/smoking大量饮酒/吸烟词性转换:heavily adv.极重地;猛烈地;heaviness n.极重;沉闷反义词:light adj.轻的(2019,江苏卷,阅读B)26. What does the table above show?A. How heavy an egg can be.B. How long to cook an egg in a pan.C. How to make an egg sink.D. How to check the age of an egg.9. help:v.&n.资助,帮助用法小结→动词词组:help oneself (to sth.)自用(食物),自取所需;can’t help (doing sth.)忍不住(做),情不自禁名词词组:with the help of sb.=with sb.’s help在……的资助下;ask for help寻求资助1.help作动词时,即是及物动词,也是不及物动词。

常用结构有help (sb.) with+名词,help (sb.) in doing sth.,help (sb.) (to) do sth.(接不定式时可以省略to):He always helps (her) with the housework.他总是帮着(她)做家务。She helped (me) (to) organize the party.她协助(我)筹备了晚会。2.help做名词时,表现“资助”时,常接介词with;还可以指“有资助的人或物”,这时常接介词to:Your advice was a big help to me.你的建议对我很有资助。

词性转换:helpful adj.有资助的,有益的;helpfully adv.有益地,有用地;helpless adj.无助的;没用的;helplessly adv.无助地,无能为力地(2019,北京卷,漫笔阅读)I was mortified. My hands were shaking. I couldn't help crying ___16___.16. A. sadly B. shylyC. excitedly D. nervously10. hide:v.把……藏起来;隐藏用法小结→词形变化:已往式hid,已往分词hidden关联词组:hide and seek捉迷藏用法:hide可作及物动词表现“把……藏起来,隐瞒……”,也可作不及物动词,表现“隐藏,隐瞒”。常用的介词搭配有:hide (sb./sth.) in/under/behind…(把……)藏于……;hide (sb./sth.) from sb.对……隐瞒:Do not hide your fear from yourself.不要对自己隐瞒你的恐惧。

亚博APP安全有保障

亚博APP安全有保障

词性转换:hidden adj.隐藏的:hidden trouble/danger隐患(2019,湖南卷,语法填空)22.Keep trying, ______ you might surprisingly find hidden abilities within you.A.but B.and C.or11. history:n.历史;历史学用法小结刁关联词组:in history在历史上;human history人类历史;modern history近代史;history museum历史博物馆;history teacher历史老师词性转换:historic adj.有历史意义的;历史上著名的;historical adj.历史的;史学的;基于史实的;historically adv.历史上地;从历史看法上说注意historic和historical的区别,historic通常表现具有重要历史意义的;historical通常表现涉及历史、史学、已往的事实。试比力:Today is a historic day for our country.今天是我国具有历史意义的日子。

He has been doing some historical study.他一直在举行史学研究。(2019年,江苏卷,词汇检测)43. Amy and Annie will go on a natural history walk next ______________(星期日).19. hit:v.打,撞,击中词形变化:已往式hit,已往分词hit用法小结:hit sb./sth. with sth.用……击打……;hit sth. on/against sth.使(身体部位)撞到(某物):He hit his head on the low ceiling.他的头碰了低矮的天花板。

熟词僻义:hit作名词时,除了表现“击,打”,还可表现“很受接待的人(或事)”:His new record is a real hit.他的新专辑极为乐成,引起惊动。近义词:beat v.(敲)打(2019年,山东卷,动词应用)Liu hit the driver with her phone and prevented the driver from driving the bus safely.20. hold:v.拿,抱,握住;举行,举行词形变化:已往式held,已往分词held用法小结→关联词组:hold on=hang on别挂断;等一下;hold up举起;hold back隐瞒;抑制;hold onto=hang onto抓住不放用法:hold除了表现“拿,握,抱”等肢体行动的寄义,还经常用来表现“举行,举行,举行”的意思,常见搭配有hold a meeting/party/competition等。(2019年,山东卷,完形)Then jump straight up as high as you can after the squat position,holding your arms up directly over your head.21.honest:adj.老实的,正直的用法小结→关联词组:to be honest老实说1.honest前面的不定冠词要用an,不用a:an honestman;2.be honest with sb.对某人老实;be honest about sth.坦诚(不隐瞒)某事词性转换:honesty n.老实,正直;honestly adv.老实地,正直地:honestly (speaking)=to be honest老实说反义词:dishonest adj.不老实的,不老实的(2019年,湖北卷,漫笔填空)Tobe honest,if I compare China with the US, my answer has always been the same: “We are not worse or better than each other; we are only different.”22.honour:n.荣誉,荣耀;尊敬美式拼写:honor用法小结→关联词组:in honour of为纪念……;for the honour of为了……的声誉;have the honour of有幸……;guest of honour贵宾用法:复数形式honours,特指“优异结果”:graduate with honours以优异结果结业词性转换:honoured adj.受尊敬的;honourable adj.荣誉的,值得尊敬的反义词:dishonour n.羞耻,难看(2019年,湖北卷,阅读C)We encourage our kids to take honorscourses(培优课程)or to have after-school jobs.23.human:n.人类;adj.人的,人类的用法小结→关联词组:human body/brain人体/脑;human being人;人类;human nature人性用法:human也可以作名词,此时human=human being,意为“人,人类”。

词性转换:humanly adv.像人地;以人力;humanity n.人类;人道(2019年,北京卷,阅读D)Nowadays,smart machines give us access to most humanknowledge.24.humorous:adj.诙谐的用法小结→关联词组:humorous stories诙谐故事词性转换:humorously adv.诙谐地,滑稽地;humour=humor n.诙谐:sense of humour诙谐感;black humour玄色诙谐(2019年,江苏卷,阅读A)27.What does the underlined word “resolution” mean in the passage?A.Promise.B. Entertainment.C.HumourD. Secret.25.hungry:adj.(饥)饿的;盼望的用法小结:hungry通常引申为“盼望的”,常用句式有be hungry for sth.或be hungry to do sth.:She is hungry for success.她盼望乐成。She was hungry to learn.她盼望学习。词性转换:hunger n.饥饿;hungrily adv.饥饿地;盼望地(2019年,山东卷,单项填空)19. - I'm getting hungry. Do you know where we can get some good food?- Of course! There ____________ a restaurant around the comer.A. will be B. was C. is26.hurry:v.&n.赶忙,急遽用法小结→动词词组:hurry up赶忙,快点名词词组:in ahurry着急,急忙忙忙;in no hurry不着急,不慌忙;in such a hurry如此慌忙用法:1.hurry可搭配一些介词作状语,例如:hurry+ along/down:She hurried along the road.她急忙地沿路而行;2.hurry/in a hurry to do sth.表现“着急(赶快)做某事”:Katewas in a hurry to grow up.凯特急切地想长大。

(2019年,浙江卷,单项填空)10.–Tony,hurryup and don't forget to lock the door.-___________________. I'm getting my coat.A.Wait a minuteB. No dealC. Nothing seriousD.Bad luck27.hurtv.伤害,使受伤;感应疼痛词形变化:已往式hurt,已往分词hurt用法小结:1.hurt作及物动词,宾语经常为身体部位或者反身代词:hurt one’s arm/leg/nose;hurt oneself;也常用于被动语态,如:get hurt受伤了。2.hurt作不及物动词,不接宾语,以身体部位作主语,表现“感应疼痛”,常用搭配有:sth.hurts badly/a lot(某身体部位)很痛;That/It(really) hurts!(真的)好疼!同义词:ache v.疼(2019年,浙江卷,阅读B)29. According to the passage, what benefit can we get from trampolining?A. It helps with bone growth.B.It cures illnesses in our knees.C. It helps reduce stress on muscles.D.It prevents ears from being hurt.声明:泉源于网络!。


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